Protecting Against Retaliation: Can Nursing Homes Punish Reporting of Abuse and Neglect?

Nursing homes are entrusted with the care and well-being of some of society’s most vulnerable individuals. However, instances of abuse and neglect in nursing homes are unfortunately not uncommon. Recognizing this, many states have enacted laws to protect residents and staff who report abuse or neglect. But despite these protections, concerns often arise about potential retaliation from nursing homes against those who speak out. 

We have previously written about nursing home abuse and neglect, the different types of nursing home abuse, the signs of nursing home abuse to look for, the causes of nursing home abuse, what to do if you suspect nursing home abuse, and whether to file a lawsuit for nursing home abuse

In this article, we’ll delve into the legal landscape surrounding nursing home abuse and neglect reporting, exploring whether nursing homes can retaliate against staff members, residents, or their loved ones for reporting such incidents.

Understanding Nursing Home Abuse and Neglect

Nursing home abuse and neglect can encompass a wide range of behaviors and actions that result in harm or distress to residents. Abuse can take various forms, including physical, emotional, sexual, or financial abuse, while neglect involves the failure to provide adequate care, resulting in harm or risk of harm to residents. Both abuse and neglect in nursing homes can have devastating consequences for residents, often leading to physical injuries, psychological trauma, and a decline in overall health and well-being. 

Legal Protections for Reporting Nursing Home Abuse and Neglect

In response to the pervasive issue of nursing home abuse and neglect, lawmakers have enacted laws at both the federal and state levels to protect individuals who report such incidents. One of the primary federal laws addressing this issue is the Nursing Home Reform Act, which requires nursing homes participating in Medicare and Medicaid programs to maintain certain standards of care and provides residents with specific rights, including the right to be free from abuse and neglect.

Additionally, many states have implemented their own statutes and regulations to address nursing home abuse and neglect reporting. These laws often include provisions to protect whistleblowers—individuals who report abuse or neglect—from retaliation by nursing homes. Retaliation can take various forms, including termination of employment, demotion, harassment, or other adverse actions aimed at punishing or silencing the individual who reported the abuse.

Can Nursing Homes Retaliate Against Reporting?

Despite the legal protections in place, concerns persist about whether nursing homes can retaliate against those who report abuse or neglect. The short answer is that retaliation is generally prohibited under both federal and state laws. Nursing homes are prohibited from taking adverse actions against staff members, residents, or their loved ones in retaliation for reporting abuse or neglect.

For staff members, protections against retaliation often come in the form of whistleblower laws, which shield employees from adverse employment actions for reporting illegal or unethical conduct by their employers. These laws typically provide avenues for employees to file complaints with government agencies or pursue legal action if they experience retaliation for reporting nursing home abuse or neglect.

Residents and their loved ones are also afforded protections against retaliation for reporting abuse or neglect. Nursing home residents have rights guaranteed under federal and state law, including the right to file complaints with regulatory agencies, such as state departments of health or long-term care ombudsman programs, without fear of retaliation. Similarly, family members or other individuals acting on behalf of residents are protected from retaliation for advocating on behalf of their loved ones and reporting instances of abuse or neglect.

Legal Protections in Ohio

Ohio, like many states, recognizes the importance of protecting individuals who report suspected abuse or neglect in nursing homes, long-term care facilities, and residential care facilities. In Ohio, there exists a statute specifically aimed at safeguarding employees, residents, and their loved ones from retaliation for reporting such incidents.

Under Ohio Revised Code § 3721.24, employees of nursing homes, long-term care facilities, and residential care facilities are protected from being fired or disciplined if they make a good faith report of suspected abuse or neglect. This provision is crucial in encouraging staff members to come forward with concerns without fear of reprisal from their employers.

Moreover, Ohio’s statute extends protections to whistleblowers, residents, and loved ones who make reports of abuse or neglect. This means that individuals who witness or suspect mistreatment of residents have legal recourse to report such incidents without fear of retaliation from the facility.

The inclusion of these protections in Ohio law reflects a commitment to upholding the rights of vulnerable residents and ensuring accountability within long-term care settings. By shielding whistleblowers and those who report abuse or neglect, Ohio aims to create an environment where concerns can be addressed promptly and effectively, ultimately enhancing the safety and well-being of residents.

Enforcing Protections Against Retaliation

While legal protections against retaliation exist, enforcing these protections can sometimes be challenging. Nursing homes may attempt to retaliate in subtle ways that are difficult to prove, such as reducing a staff member’s hours or assigning them to undesirable tasks. Similarly, residents or their loved ones may face intimidation or harassment from nursing home staff or administrators.

In such cases, it’s essential for individuals who have experienced retaliation to understand their rights and seek legal guidance. Employment law attorneys can assist staff members in pursuing claims for retaliation under whistleblower laws, while residents and their loved ones may benefit from the expertise of elder law attorneys or advocates who specialize in nursing home abuse and neglect cases.

Additionally, regulatory agencies play a crucial role in enforcing protections against retaliation. State departments of health and other oversight agencies have the authority to investigate complaints of retaliation and take enforcement actions against nursing homes found to have violated anti-retaliation laws.

Nursing home abuse and neglect are serious concerns that require vigilant oversight and accountability. Legal protections exist to encourage reporting of abuse and neglect and to shield individuals from retaliation for speaking out. Whether you’re a staff member, resident, or loved one of a nursing home resident, it’s important to know your rights and understand the options available for seeking recourse if you experience retaliation for reporting abuse or neglect. By holding nursing homes accountable and promoting a culture of transparency and accountability, we can work towards ensuring the safety and well-being of all nursing home residents.

Disclaimer: This information is provided for informational purposes only. Nothing in this article should be construed as providing legal advice or the creation of an attorney client relationship. Laws are updated frequently and change from state to state. If you desire legal advice, you can contact Michael Hill Trial Law at, send an email to, call (800) 659-2712 to begin an investigation, or contact another attorney.